Firefighters prepare to extinguish fire after an explosion in Ankara, Turkey, February 17, 2016. Reuters/Ihlas News Agency

At least 28 people were killed and 61 injured after a car bomb exploded in the Turkish military capital of Ankara on Wednesday.

Government officials say a vehicle fit with explosives reportedly targeted a convoy of buses carrying military personnel that were stopped at traffic lights.

Deputy Prime Minister Numan Kurtulmus says the attack was clearly planned and vowed to “shed all light” on the incident.

Justice Minister Bekir Bozdag called the explosion “an act of terrorism,” but no group has yet claimed responsibility for the incident.

The attack occurred near both the Turkish military headquarters and parliament, which was in session at the time of the explosion.

Ambulances and emergency vehicles rushed to the scene after a blast was heard and large plumes of smoke were reported by residents throughout the area.

"I heard a huge explosion," said one witness, according to the ABC. "There was smoke and a really strong smell even though we were blocks away."

The attack is one of several tragic incidents that have occurred in Turkey since the nation increased its cooperation with the US-led fight against the Islamic State (IS) in Syria.

In October 2015, two suicide bombers – believed to be linked to the Islamic State - attacked a peace rally in Ankara, killing over 100 people.

Last month, another suicide bomber, also said to be linked to the IS, killed at least ten tourists visiting Turkey’s capital, Istanbul.

Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu, who had been due to leave for Brussels today, cancelled his trip following Wednesday’s explosion and called for an emergency security meeting.

In a statement following the explosion, President Tayyip Erdogan said Turkey’s fight against the "pawns" carrying out the attacks, and the forces behind them, will only grow more determined.

"Our determination to respond in kind to attacks taking place inside and outside our borders is getting stronger with such acts," Mr Erdogan said, according to the ABC.

"It must be known that Turkey will not shy away from using its right to self-defence at any time, any place or any occasion."